The p-Block Elements Class 12 Notes

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The p-Block elements can be found on the right-hand side of the periodic table and include elements like boron, nitrogen, fluorine, oxygen, nitrogen families, etc. along with noble gases, excluding helium. This chapter of Class 12 forms an essential portion of the CBSE curriculum, and it is necessary for you to have a thorough preparation to score high.

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Group 15 Elements: The Nitrogen Family

Nitrogen phosphorus, arsenic, antimony, and bismuth are all members of Group 15. There is a transition from nonmetallic to metallic through metalloid property as we move down the group. Non-metals are nitrogen and phosphorus, metalloids are arsenic and antimony, and bismuth is a typical metal.

Electronic Configuration

The electrical configuration of these elements' valence shells is

The s orbital in these elements is totally filled, while the p orbital i

s half-filled, resulting in an extremely stable electronic structure.

Atomic and Ionic Radii

Radii of covalent and ionic (in a certain state) compounds grow in larger as they progress through the group. From N to P, the covalent radius increases dramatically. However, there is only a modest increase in covalent radius from As to Bi. This is owing to the presence of totally filled d and / or f orbitals in heavier members.

Ionisation Enthalpy

Due to the progressive rise in atomic size, the ionisation enthalpy drops down the group. The ionisation enthaply of group 15 elements is substantially greater than that of group 14 elements in the equivalent periods due to the extra stable half-filled p-orbital electronic configuration and smaller size. As expected, the order of consecutive ionisation enthalpies is



With increasing atomic size, the electronegativity value generally drops down the group. However, the gap is less significant among the heavier elements.

Physical Properties

This group's elements are all polyatomic. All other elements are solids except dinitrogen, which is a diatomic gas. The group's metallic aspect grows stronger as it progresses. Bismuth is a metalloid, while nitrogen and phosphorus are non-metals. Arsenic and antimony are metalloids, and bismuth is a metal. This is owing to an increase in atomic size and a decrease in ionisation enthalpy. In general, boiling points rise from top to bottom in the group, although melting points rise until arsenic and then fall until bismuth. Except for nitrogen, all elements exhibit allotropy.

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